The Odyssey: Book 05 Poem Rhyme Scheme and Analysis


And now as Dawn rose from her couch beside Tithonus harbinger ofA
light alike to mortals and immortals the gods met in council and withB
them Jove the lord of thunder who is their king Thereon MinervaC
began to tell them of the many sufferings of Ulysses for she pitiedD
him away there in the house of the nymph CalypsoE
Father Jove said she and all you other gods that live inF
everlasting bliss I hope there may never be such a thing as a kindG
and well disposed ruler any more nor one who will govern equitably IH
hope they will be all henceforth cruel and unjust for there is notI
one of his subjects but has forgotten Ulysses who ruled them asJ
though he were their father There he is lying in great pain in anK
island where dwells the nymph Calypso who will not let him go and heL
cannot get back to his own country for he can find neither shipsM
nor sailors to take him over the sea Furthermore wicked people areN
now trying to murder his only son Telemachus who is coming homeO
from Pylos and Lacedaemon where he has been to see if he can get newsP
of his fatherQ
What my dear are you talking about replied her father did youR
not send him there yourself because you thought it would help UlyssesS
to get home and punish the suitors Besides you are perfectly able toR
protect Telemachus and to see him safely home again while theC
suitors have to come hurry skurrying back without having killed himT
When he had thus spoken he said to his son Mercury Mercury youR
are our messenger go therefore and tell Calypso we have decreedD
that poor Ulysses is to return home He is to be convoyed neither byH
gods nor men but after a perilous voyage of twenty days upon a raftU
he is to reach fertile Scheria the land of the Phaeacians who areN
near of kin to the gods and will honour him as though he were oneV
of ourselves They will send him in a ship to his own country andW
will give him more bronze and gold and raiment than he would haveX
brought back from Troy if he had had had all his prize money andW
had got home without disaster This is how we have settled that heL
shall return to his country and his friendsY
Thus he spoke and Mercury guide and guardian slayer of Argus didZ
as he was told Forthwith he bound on his glittering golden sandalsA2
with which he could fly like the wind over land and sea He took theC
wand with which he seals men's eyes in sleep or wakes them just asJ
he pleases and flew holding it in his hand over Pieria then heL
swooped down through the firmament till he reached the level of theC
sea whose waves he skimmed like a cormorant that flies fishingB2
every hole and corner of the ocean and drenching its thick plumage inF
the spray He flew and flew over many a weary wave but when at lastC2
he got to the island which was his journey's end he left the seaL
and went on by land till he came to the cave where the nymph CalypsoE
He found her at home There was a large fire burning on theC
hearth and one could smell from far the fragrant reek of burningB2
cedar and sandal wood As for herself she was busy at her loomE2
shooting her golden shuttle through the warp and singingB2
beautifully Round her cave there was a thick wood of alder poplarQ
and sweet smelling cypress trees wherein all kinds of great birds hadF2
built their nests owls hawks and chattering sea crows that occupyH
their business in the waters A vine loaded with grapes was trainedG2
and grew luxuriantly about the mouth of the cave there were also fourH2
running rills of water in channels cut pretty close together andW
turned hither and thither so as to irrigate the beds of violets andW
luscious herbage over which they flowed Even a god could not helpI2
being charmed with such a lovely spot so Mercury stood still andW
looked at it but when he had admired it sufficiently he went insideJ2
the caveK2
Calypso knew him at once for the gods all know each other noE
matter how far they live from one another but Ulysses was not withinF
he was on the sea shore as usual looking out upon the barren oceanV
with tears in his eyes groaning and breaking his heart for sorrowE
Calypso gave Mercury a seat and said Why have you come to see meL
Mercury honoured and ever welcome for you do not visit me oftenV
Say what you want I will do it for be you at once if I can and if itL2
can be done at all but come inside and let me set refreshment beforeH2
As she spoke she drew a table loaded with ambrosia beside him andW
mixed him some red nectar so Mercury ate and drank till he had hadF2
enough and then saidM2
We are speaking god and goddess to one another one another andW
you ask me why I have come here and I will tell you truly as youR
would have me do Jove sent me it was no doing of mine who couldN2
possibly want to come all this way over the sea where there are noE
cities full of people to offer me sacrifices or choice hecatombsE
Nevertheless I had to come for none of us other gods can crossE
Jove nor transgress his orders He says that you have here the mostO2
ill starred of alf those who fought nine years before the city of KingB2
Priam and sailed home in the tenth year after having sacked it OnP2
their way home they sinned against Minerva who raised both wind andW
waves against them so that all his brave companions perished andW
he alone was carried hither by wind and tide Jove says that you areN
to let this by man go at once for it is decreed that he shall notI
perish here far from his own people but shall return to his houseE
and country and see his friends againQ2
Calypso trembled with rage when she heard this You gods sheL
exclaimed to be ashamed of yourselves You are always jealous andW
hate seeing a goddess take a fancy to a mortal man and live withB
him in open matrimony So when rosy fingered Dawn made love toR
Orion you precious gods were all of you furious till Diana went andW
killed him in Ortygia So again when Ceres fell in love with IasionQ2
and yielded to him in a thrice ploughed fallow field Jove came toR
hear of it before so long and killed Iasion with his thunder boltsE
And now you are angry with me too because I have a man here I foundR2
the poor creature sitting all alone astride of a keel for Jove hadF2
struck his ship with lightning and sunk it in mid ocean so that allS2
his crew were drowned while he himself was driven by wind and wavesE
on to my island I got fond of him and cherished him and had set myH
heart on making him immortal so that he should never grow old all hisE
days still I cannot cross Jove nor bring his counsels to nothingB2
therefore if he insists upon it let the man go beyond the seasE
again but I cannot send him anywhere myself for I have neitherQ
ships nor men who can take him Nevertheless I will readily give himT
such advice in all good faith as will be likely to bring himT
safely to his own countryL
Then send him away said Mercury or Jove will be angry withB
you and punish you 'T2
On this he took his leave and Calypso went out to look for UlyssesE
for she had heard Jove's message She found him sitting upon the beachU2
with his eyes ever filled with tears and dying of sheerV2
home sickness for he had got tired of Calypso and though he wasE
forced to sleep with her in the cave by night it was she not heL
that would have it so As for the day time he spent it on the rocksE
and on the sea shore weeping crying aloud for his despair andW
always looking out upon the sea Calypso then went close up to himT
My poor fellow you shall not stay here grieving and frettingB2
your life out any longer I am going to send you away of my own freeL
will so go cut some beams of wood and make yourself a large raftU
with an upper deck that it may carry you safely over the sea I willW2
put bread wine and water on board to save you from starving IH
will also give you clothes and will send you a fair wind to takeX2
you home if the gods in heaven so will it for they know more aboutY2
these things and can settle them better than I canQ2
Ulysses shuddered as he heard her Now goddess he answeredZ2
there is something behind all this you cannot be really meaning toR
help me home when you bid me do such a dreadful thing as put to sea onQ2
a raft Not even a well found ship with a fair wind could venture onQ2
such a distant voyage nothing that you can say or do shall mage me goE
on board a raft unless you first solemnly swear that you mean me noE
Calypso smiled at this and caressed him with her hand You know aC
great deal said she but you are quite wrong here May heaven aboveA
and earth below be my witnesses with the waters of the river StyxE
and this is the most solemn oath which a blessed god can take thatB3
I mean you no sort of harm and am only advising you to do exactlyL
what I should do myself in your place I am dealing with you quiteC3
straightforwardly my heart is not made of iron and I am very sorryL
for youR
When she had thus spoken she led the way rapidly before him andW
Ulysses followed in her steps so the pair goddess and man went onQ2
and on till they came to Calypso's cave where Ulysses took the seatD3
that Mercury had just left Calypso set meat and drink before him ofA
the food that mortals eat but her maids brought ambrosia and nectarQ
for herself and they laid their hands on the good things that wereQ
before them When they had satisfied themselves with meat and drinkE3
Calypso spoke sayingB2
Ulysses noble son of Laertes so you would start home to yourH2
own land at once Good luck go with you but if you could only knowE
how much suffering is in store for you before you get back to your ownQ2
country you would stay where you are keep house along with me andW
let me make you immortal no matter how anxious you may be to see thisE
wife of yours of whom you are thinking all the time day after dayF3
yet I flatter myself that at am no whit less tall or well looking thanQ2
she is for it is not to be expected that a mortal woman shouldN2
compare in beauty with an immortalG3
Goddess replied Ulysses do not be angry with me about this IH
am quite aware that my wife Penelope is nothing like so tall or soE
beautiful as yourself She is only a woman whereas you are anQ2
immortal Nevertheless I want to get home and can think of nothingB2
else If some god wrecks me when I am on the sea I will bear it andW
make the best of it I have had infinite trouble both by land andW
sea already so let this go with the restH3
Presently the sun set and it became dark whereon the pair retiredI3
into the inner part of the cave and went to bedM2
When the child of morning rosy fingered Dawn appeared Ulysses putJ3
on his shirt and cloak while the goddess wore a dress of a lightC3
gossamer fabric very fine and graceful with a beautiful goldenQ2
girdle about her waist and a veil to cover her head She at once setK3
herself to think how she could speed Ulysses on his way So she gaveK2
him a great bronze axe that suited his hands it was sharpened on bothL3
sides and had a beautiful olive wood handle fitted firmly on to itL2
She also gave him a sharp adze and then led the way to the far end ofA
the island where the largest trees grew alder poplar and pineQ2
that reached the sky very dry and well seasoned so as to sailM3
light for him in the water Then when she had shown him where theC
best trees grew Calypso went home leaving him to cut them whichN3
he soon finished doing He cut down twenty trees in all and adzed themO3
smooth squaring them by rule in good workmanlike fashion MeanwhileP3
Calypso came back with some augers so he bored holes with them andW
fitted the timbers together with bolts and rivets He made the raft asE
broad as a skilled shipwright makes the beam of a large vessel and heL
filed a deck on top of the ribs and ran a gunwale all round it HeL
also made a mast with a yard arm and a rudder to steer with HeL
fenced the raft all round with wicker hurdles as a protectionQ2
against the waves and then he threw on a quantity of wood By andW
by Calypso brought him some linen to make the sails and he made theseE
too excellently making them fast with braces and sheets Last ofA
all with the help of levers he drew the raft down into the waterQ
In four days he had completed the whole work and on the fifthQ3
Calypso sent him from the island after washing him and giving him someR3
clean clothes She gave him a goat skin full of black wine andW
another larger one of water she also gave him a wallet full ofA
provisions and found him in much good meat Moreover she made theC
wind fair and warm for him and gladly did Ulysses spread his sailM3
before it while he sat and guided the raft skilfully by means ofA
the rudder He never closed his eyes but kept them fixed on theC
Pleiads on late setting Bootes and on the Bear which men alsoE
call the wain and which turns round and round where it is facingB2
Orion and alone never dipping into the stream of Oceanus for CalypsoE
had told him to keep this to his left Days seven and ten did heL
sail over the sea and on the eighteenth the dim outlines of theC
mountains on the nearest part of the Phaeacian coast appearedS3
rising like a shield on the horizonQ2
But King Neptune who was returning from the Ethiopians caughtI
sight of Ulysses a long way off from the mountains of the SolymiR3
He could see him sailing upon the sea and it made him very angryL
so he wagged his head and muttered to himself saying heavens so theC
gods have been changing their minds about Ulysses while I was awayF3
in Ethiopia and now he is close to the land of the PhaeaciansE
where it is decreed that he shall escape from the calamities that haveX
befallen him Still he shall have plenty of hardship yet before heL
has done with itL2
Thereon he gathered his clouds together grasped his tridentT3
stirred it round in the sea and roused the rage of every wind thatB3
blows till earth sea and sky were hidden in cloud and nightC3
sprang forth out of the heavens Winds from East South North andW
West fell upon him all at the same time and a tremendous sea gotI
up so that Ulysses' heart began to fail him Alas he said toR
himself in his dismay what ever will become of me I am afraidU3
Calypso was right when she said I should have trouble by sea beforeH2
I got back home It is all coming true How black is Jove makingB2
heaven with his clouds and what a sea the winds are raising fromR3
every quarter at once I am now safe to perish Blest and thrice blestH3
were those Danaans who fell before Troy in the cause of the sons ofA
Atreus Would that had been killed on the day when the Trojans wereQ
pressing me so sorely about the dead body of Achilles for then IH
should have had due burial and the Achaeans would have honoured myH
name but now it seems that I shall come to a most pitiable endV3
As he spoke a sea broke over him with such terrific fury that theC
raft reeled again and he was carried overboard a long way off He letK3
go the helm and the force of the hurricane was so great that it brokeW3
the mast half way up and both sail and yard went over into the seaL
For a long time Ulysses was under water and it was all he could do toR
rise to the surface again for the clothes Calypso had given himR3
weighed him down but at last he got his head above water and spat outY2
the bitter brine that was running down his face in streams In spiteC3
of all this however he did not lose sight of his raft but swam asE
fast as he could towards it got hold of it and climbed on boardX3
again so as to escape drowning The sea took the raft and tossed itL2
about as Autumn winds whirl thistledown round and round upon a roadY3
It was as though the South North East and West winds were allS2
playing battledore and shuttlecock with it at onceE
When he was in this plight Ino daughter of Cadmus also calledZ3
Leucothea saw him She had formerly been a mere mortal but hadF2
been since raised to the rank of a marine goddess Seeing in whatA4
great distress Ulysses now was she had compassion upon him andW
rising like a sea gull from the waves took her seat upon the raftU
My poor good man said she why is Neptune so furiously angryL
with you He is giving you a great deal of trouble but for all hisE
bluster he will not kill you You seem to be a sensible person doR
then as I bid you strip leave your raft to drive before the windG
and swim to the Phaecian coast where better luck awaits you And hereB4
take my veil and put it round your chest it is enchanted and you canQ2
come to no harm so long as you wear it As soon as you touch land takeX2
it off throw it back as far as you can into the sea and then go awayF3
again With these words she took off her veil and gave it him ThenQ2
she dived down again like a sea gull and vanished beneath the darkC4
blue watersE
But Ulysses did not know what to think Alas he said to himselfD4
in his dismay this is only some one or other of the gods who isE
luring me to ruin by advising me to will quit my raft At any rate IH
will not do so at present for the land where she said I should beL
quit of all troubles seemed to be still a good way off I know whatA4
I will do I am sure it will be best no matter what happens I willW2
stick to the raft as long as her timbers hold together but when theC
sea breaks her up I will swim for it I do not see how I can do anyL
better than thisE
While he was thus in two minds Neptune sent a terrible great waveK2
that seemed to rear itself above his head till it broke right over theC
raft which then went to pieces as though it were a heap of dryH
chaff tossed about by a whirlwind Ulysses got astride of one plankE4
and rode upon it as if he were on horseback he then took off theC
clothes Calypso had given him bound Ino's veil under his arms andW
plunged into the sea meaning to swim on shore King Neptune watchedF4
him as he did so and wagged his head muttering to himself andW
saying 'There now swim up and down as you best can till you fall inQ2
with well to do people I do not think you will be able to say thatB3
I have let you off too lightly On this he lashed his horses andW
drove to Aegae where his palace isE
But Minerva resolved to help Ulysses so she bound the ways of allS2
the winds except one and made them lie quite still but she rousedG4
a good stiff breeze from the North that should lay the waters tillW2
Ulysses reached the land of the Phaeacians where he would be safeH4
Thereon he floated about for two nights and two days in the waterQ
with a heavy swell on the sea and death staring him in the face butA4
when the third day broke the wind fell and there was a dead calmR3
without so much as a breath of air stirring As he rose on the swellI4
he looked eagerly ahead and could see land quite near Then asE
children rejoice when their dear father begins to get better afterQ
having for a long time borne sore affliction sent him by some angryL
spirit but the gods deliver him from evil so was Ulysses thankfulG3
when he again saw land and trees and swam on with all his strengthJ4
that he might once more set foot upon dry ground When however heL
got within earshot he began to hear the surf thundering up againstK4
the rocks for the swell still broke against them with a terrificL4
roar Everything was enveloped in spray there were no harboursE
where a ship might ride nor shelter of any kind but onlyL
headlands low lying rocks and mountain topsE
Ulysses' heart now began to fail him and he said despairingly toR
himself Alas Jove has let me see land after swimming so far thatB3
I had given up all hope but I can find no landing place for theC
coast is rocky and surf beaten the rocks are smooth and rise sheerV2
from the sea with deep water close under them so that I cannotI
climb out for want of foothold I am afraid some great wave willW2
lift me off my legs and dash me against the rocks as I leave theC
water which would give me a sorry landing If on the other hand IH
swim further in search of some shelving beach or harbour aC
hurricane may carry me out to sea again sorely against my will orH2
heaven may send some great monster of the deep to attack me forH2
Amphitrite breeds many such and I know that Neptune is very angryL
with meL
While he was thus in two minds a wave caught him and took him withB
such force against the rocks that he would have been smashed andW
torn to pieces if Minerva had not shown him what to do He caught holdM4
of the rock with both hands and clung to it groaning with pain tillW2
the wave retired so he was saved that time but presently the waveK2
came on again and carried him back with it far into the sea tearingB2
his hands as the suckers of a polypus are torn when some one plucks itL2
from its bed and the stones come up along with it even so did theC
rocks tear the skin from his strong hands and then the wave drewR
him deep down under the waterQ
Here poor Ulysses would have certainly perished even in spite of hisE
own destiny if Minerva had not helped him to keep his wits about himR3
He swam seaward again beyond reach of the surf that was beatingB2
against the land and at the same time he kept looking towards theC
shore to see if he could find some haven or a spit that should takeX2
the waves aslant By and by as he swam on he came to the mouth ofA
a river and here he thought would be the best place for there wereQ
no rocks and it afforded shelter from the wind He felt that thereN4
was a current so he prayed inwardly and saidM2
Hear me O King whoever you may be and save me from the angerQ
of the sea god Neptune for I approach you prayerfully Any one whoR
has lost his way has at all times a claim even upon the godsE
wherefore in my distress I draw near to your stream and cling toR
the knees of your riverhood Have mercy upon me O king for I declareN4
myself your suppliantR
Then the god stayed his stream and stilled the waves making allS2
calm before him and bringing him safely into the mouth of theC
river Here at last Ulysses' knees and strong hands failed him forH2
the sea had completely broken him His body was all swollen and hisE
mouth and nostrils ran down like a river with sea water so that heL
could neither breathe nor speak and lay swooning from sheerV2
exhaustion presently when he had got his breath and came toR
himself again he took off the scarf that Ino had given him andR
threw it back into the salt stream of the river whereon InoQ2
received it into her hands from the wave that bore it towards herQ
Then he left the river laid himself down among the rushes and kissedR
the bounteous earthO4
Alas he cried to himself in his dismay what ever will become ofA
me and how is it all to end If I stay here upon the river bedR
through the long watches of the night I am so exhausted that theC
bitter cold and damp may make an end of me for towards sunriseE
there will be a keen wind blowing from off the river If on the otherQ
hand I climb the hill side find shelter in the woods and sleep inQ2
some thicket I may escape the cold and have a good night's restR
but some savage beast may take advantage of me and devour meL
In the end he deemed it best to take to the woods and he foundR
one upon some high ground not far from the water There he creptR
beneath two shoots of olive that grew from a single stock the oneQ2
an ungrafted sucker while the other had been grafted No windR
however squally could break through the cover they afforded norH2
could the sun's rays pierce them nor the rain get through them soE
closely did they grow into one another Ulysses crept under theseE
and began to make himself a bed to lie on for there was a greatR
litter of dead leaves lying about enough to make a covering for twoR
or three men even in hard winter weather He was glad enough to seeL
this so he laid himself down and heaped the leaves all round himR3
Then as one who lives alone in the country far from any neighborQ
hides a brand as fire seed in the ashes to save himself from having toR
get a light elsewhere even so did Ulysses cover himself up withB
leaves and Minerva shed a sweet sleep upon his eyes closed hisE
eyelids and made him lose all memories of his sorrowsE



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